长勺之战知多少

长勺之战知多少

                                                                                      文/吕布凡
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  • 齐国何以败

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这一战发生在齐桓公即位的第二年,从时间上不难理解,齐桓公小白没有忘记2年前自己还是齐国乱世逃亡的公子时,与路过发生的干时之战,不管是因为2年前相父管仲射中了带钩让他无法忘记这份耻辱,还是由于鲁国帮大公子纠夺位不成而将狠心其杀害,小白这次没有听从管仲的“眼下需安民、强国”之建议,而是一意孤行,下令鲍叔牙为主将前去应战。
鲍叔牙为人刚正,兵法、学问功力都很深厚,在战场与鲁国大将曹沫交锋,数战数捷,得意忘形。此时在家潜心“安民、遴选人才”的管仲心有忧虑,就怕鲍叔牙以大国自恃,深入敌国的鲁军深处,难以脱身。思量之后,管仲给这位知己好友写了一份“鸡毛信”,内容是:驱驰需留后路,小胜即可回兵。言下之意就是,不要太骄傲,更不要因为骄傲中敌人之计。鲍叔牙看到这封“鸡毛信”,不屑一顾地丢下了,我们可以猜想:或许他在想,这位老朋友也太看不上我的作战才能了;也或许在想:你不让国军打仗,怕输了落得个劳民伤财的骂名,现在我都连战连捷了,这是怕我的功劳太大不成。不管鲍叔牙怎么思量过这封“鸡毛信”,最终他是没有听从管仲的建议回兵齐国,而因冒进使齐兵死伤累累。
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  • 鲁国何以胜

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战争前期,鲍叔牙带领齐军连战连胜的时候,对方鲁国主将曹沫自然是节节败退,曹沫一方面无法忘记着干时之战的羞耻,一方面又要面对现实中国君鲁庄公的批评,苦不堪言。正在火烧眉毛之际,当年坚持进谏鲁庄公要杀掉管仲的大夫施伯向曹沫和鲁庄公推荐了一位贵族曹刿。
曹刿面见鲁庄公的对话就是初中曾学过的《曹刿论战》中的经典部分。
曹刿问鲁庄公:“请问国君凭借什么要让士兵为您打仗?”鲁庄公说:“锦衣玉食之类,我从不敢独自专享,一定把它分给大家。”曹刿回答:“一些小恩小惠,不能遍及百姓每个人,百姓是不会甘愿听从您的。”鲁庄公说:“祭祀用的牛、羊、玉器,,我不虚报(数目),一定按照实情跟神说祝祷。”曹刿回答说:“小信用而已,神是不会因此保佑你的。”鲁庄公说:“全国的大小案件,我即使不能一一洞察,也一定都是合情合理地做出裁决。”曹刿回答说:“这只能说明了你尽了本职的事情,(不过)可以凭借这个条件打一仗,不过,鲁国是小国,也就仅此一仗。”
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继曹刿300年之后孟子也向国君梁惠王说了类似的话:服兵役不要耽误了农时;养鱼鳖要“可持续发展”,千万不要用太细密的网去打捞;也不要一年四季都去伐木;要让百姓的生死都没有遗憾,这是王道之始,也就是国君的本职工作。可见,在春秋战国混乱的年代,贤君尽职尽责和打正义之仗正是其间的强国之道了。再回来看曹刿赢了鲍叔牙的“长勺之战”也并非“一鼓作气”的一时之勇就胜利了,鲁庄公常年对百姓、对士兵累积的信用也是战胜的一大因素。由此可见,倘若借鉴用于治学,广大治学的学子们,考场一时的发挥技术固然重要,且末要忽视了平时“功力”的积累。

 

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